Understanding the human dimensions of marine managed areas (MMAs) is critical for designing and implementing effective MMAs. People’s activities affect the health of the ocean ecosystem, and the ecosystem produces benefits for people. For example, coral reefs provide shoreline protection and resilience against global climate change. Many of the benefits are non-market values, notably cultural and existence values.
A MMA may generate a mix of positive and negative outcomes for people, depending on how their lives relate to the ocean and on the ways that MMAs are implemented. Managers and policy makers need to know the wider array of benefits and costs associated with MMAs in order to make well-informed decisions about where and how to create MMAs.
- Economic Values of Goods and Services Associated with MMAs
We assessed the monetary value of natural resources associated with MMAs. Resource managers, educators, and conservationists will use the findings to build support for marine conservation and to prioritize among management options.
Principal Investigators: Venetia Hargreaves-Allen (Belize), Marcos Amend (Brazil), and Ricardo Montenegro (Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape-Panama), Isoa Korovulavula (Fiji), John Reid (Global)
Belize (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Brazil (PDF, 0.9 MB)
Panama (PDF, 4.4 MB)
- Cultural Roles of Goods and Services Associated with MMAs
We analyzed the history of involvement of the community, characteristics and structure of the communities, gender roles within the community as they relate to marine activities, and changes accompanying the establishment of MMAs. A comparison among sites considered how MMAs produce larger, global effects.
Principal Investigators: Joseph Palacio (Belize), Isabela Curado (Brazil), Dolores Cordero (Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape-Panama), Joeli Veitaiyaki (Fiji), Michael Orbach (Global)
Belize (PDF, 1.6 MB)
Fiji (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Panama (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Global (PDF, 0.3 MB)
- Global Socioeconomic Conditions of MMAs
We conducted a global analysis of people’s dependence on marine resources, perceptions of resource conditions and threats, and MMA governance status. This study provides insights into the importance of coastal and marine resources to human well-being.
Principal Investigator: Christy Loper
Science Report (PDF, 2.3 MB)